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Dr. Leonard Freiherr von Rummel
Dr. Leonard Freiherr von Rummel, LL.M. (Stellenbosch), Maître en droit
Counsel, International Trade Law, ESG

Leonard von Rummel specialises in all aspects of international trade law and represents national and international clients in all matters relating to foreign trade. He has particular experience in advising German and international companies on investment screening under German law in connection with cross-border M&A transactions (FDI). Leonard also focuses on excise duties (in particular energy, electricity and alcohol duties), export controls, sanctions and customs law. He advises primarily on preventive compliance, but also in relation to infringements. Leonard is also an expert on the Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism (CBAM) and advises on all related legal issues. Leonard regularly represents clients in proceedings before customs authorities, the European Commission, the German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Climate Action (BMWK), the German Federal Office for Econonic Affairs and Export Control (BAFA), as well as before administrative and fiscal courts and the European Court of Justice.

Leonard is named as a "Rising Star" in foreign trade law by The Legal 500 and listed in WorldECR’s Directory of Experts as a specialist in export controls and sanctions compliance. He is also recommended by Who's Who Legal as a lawyer for foreign trade and customs law. Leonard is listed in Best Lawyers and recommended by JUVE for customs and excise (Handbuch Steuern and Handbuch der Wirtschaftskanzleien). He regularly publishes and lectures on current international trade law issues.

Leonard is admitted to the Bar in Germany (Rechtsanwalt). He is a board member of the Forum Contracting association, Coordinator of the CELIS German Chapter and member of the EFA (Europäisches Forum für Außenwirtschaftsrecht e.V.).

Languages: German, English, French


Foreign Direct Investment Control (FDI)

  • Advising in many German foreign investment control proceedings, including:

  • Advising COSCO Shipping on its entry into a terminal of the Port of Hamburg

  • Advising CRRC on its acquisition of Vossloh Locomotives

  • Advising Helsing on its Series A+ and B financing rounds

  • Advising Qell in relation to its merger with Lilium

  • Representing the German Federal Government in adminstrative court proceedings concering various prohibition decisions

  • Advising and representing multinational pharmaceutical company Teva on German foreign direct investment aspects of its licensing collaboration with MODAG

Excise Taxes and Customs

  • Advising ADM on customs and excise tax matters, primarily on granting of preferences

  • Advising and representing RWE in energy and electricity tax law matters

  • Representing Shell in an energy tax dispute

  • Advising and representing Vattenfall in energy and electricity tax law matters

  • Advising BP in energy tax law matters

Export Control/Sanctions

  • Advising and representing Infineon regularly on international trade law issues

  • Advising a gas turbine engine sales and repair company on export control issues

  • Advising various industrial companies on sanctions and export control law in connection with Russia, Iran, Ukraine, India and Israel


Leonard studied law at the Eberhard-Karls University of Tübingen, the Université Aix-Marseille III, France (Maîtrise en droit international et européen) and the Stellenbosch University, South Africa (LL.M.). His legal traineeship completed Leonard at the Hansetic Higher Regional Court in Hamburg with stations at Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology and law firms in Hamburg and Shanghai.

Leonard's doctoral thesis deals with the legal aspects of recommunalisation.


  • Leonard's doctoral thesis deals with the legal aspects of recommunalisation

  • Contribution to the German investment protection law, Lexology Panoramic (formerly GTDT): Foreign Investment Review, since 2019 (with Roland Stein)

  • Die atypische Kontrolle im Investitionskontrollrecht, EuZW 7/2024, p. 305

  • Stromsteuerrecht: Der BFH und der unionsrechtliche Verhältnismäßigkeitsgrundsatz, CuR 1/2024, p. 12

  • Die Outbound-Investitionskontrolle der USA: Ein Vorbild für die EU?, Der Zoll-Profi! 12/2023, p. 5

  • Die Outbound-Investitionskontrolle der USA: Ein Vorbild für die EU?, EuZW 21/2023, p. 982 (with Leah Gölz)

  • „Immer wachsam!“ – Das Zollrecht und die Russland-Sanktionen, AW-Prax 11-12/2023, p. 553 (with Laura Louca)

  • Einführung in die deutsche Investitionskontrolle anlässlich des COSCO Investments am Hamburger Container Terminal Tollerort, Recht der Transportwirtschaft (RdTW) 12/2022, p. 465 (with Julius Gertz)

  • Der unionsrechtliche Verhältnismäßigkeitsgrundsatz und seine Auswirkungen auf das nationale Energiesteuerverfahrensrecht, Deutsches Steuerrecht (DStR) 24/22, p. 11990 - 1193 (with Roland Stein)

  • Außenwirtschaftsrecht zwischen Globalisierung und Protektionismus, Co-Publishing JUVE Handbuch Wirtschaftskanzleien 2021/2022 (with Roland Stein)

  • Die Bewertung von Bieterkonzepten in Vergabeverfahren, IR – InfrastrukturRecht 2020, p. 221 ff. (with Florian Wolf)

  • Die neue AGG Nr. 28: Umsetzung des deutsch-französischen Abkommens über Ausfuhrkontrollen im Rüstungsbereich, Der Zoll-Profi 11/2020, p. 7-11 (with Johann von Pestalozza)

  • Export control milestones: Franco-German military cooperation, WorldECR - The Journal of Export Controls and Sanctions, Issue # 92, September 2020, p. 23 (with Florian Wolf)

  • Das Ende des „bösen Scheins“ durch den BGH im Verfahren nach § 46 EnWG, NZBau – Neue Zeitschrift für Baurecht und Vergaberecht 8/2020, pp. 498-500 (with Pascal Friton and Hans-Joachim Prieß)

  • Umfang und Grenzen der Steuerbefreiung für Strom, der zur Stromerzeugung verwendet wird, CuR 02/2020, p. 52

  • Selbstanzeige - wer Hunde weckt, schläft ruhiger, AW-Prax 07/2020, p. 277 (with Roland Stein)

  • Die „Selbstanzeige“ im Außenwirtschaftsrecht – eine Bestandsaufnahme, Der Zoll-Profi 06/2020, pp. 7-10 (with Elisa Steinhöfel)

  • Contribution to the German investment protection law, Getting the Deal Through: Foreign Investment Review 2020 (with Roland Stein)

  • Stromverbrauch in Transformations- und Umspannanlagen, Anmerkung zum BFH Urteil vom 30. April 2019, V II R 10/18, ZfZ 2019, 352 ff. (with Roland Stein)

  • Schutz der europäischen Wirtschaft durch handelspolitische Maßnahmen, Der Zoll-Profi!, October 2019, p. 8 (with Roland Stein)

  • Der "böse Schein" im Vergabeverfahren - Widerlegbarkeit von Interessenkonflikten in Vergabeverfahren nach EnWG und GWB, NZBau - Neue Zeitschrift für Baurecht und Vergaberecht 2019, p. 690 (with Hans-Joachim Prieß and Pascal Friton)

  • Die EU-Compliance-Leitlinien für den Handel mit Dual-Use-Gütern, Anmerkung, jurisPR-Compl 5/2019 Anm. 5 (with Roland M. Stein)

  • Rechtmäßigkeit handelspolitischer Schutzmaßnahmen der Europäischen Union am Beispiel von Stahlzöllen, ZfZ – Zeitschrift für Zölle und Verbrauchsteuern 2019, p. 157 (with Roland M. Stein)

  • EuGH konkretisiert Anforderungen an Rahmenvereinbarungen, Anmerkung zu EuGH, Urteil vom 19. Dezember 2018, C-216/17, juris-PR VergR 3/2019 Anm. 1 (with Pascal Friton)

  • Report on the 9th 'Deutsche Energiesteuertag' – 'Aktuelle Entwicklungen im Energie- und Stromsteuerrecht' ('Current developments on energy and electricity tax law', ZfZ – Zeitschrift für Zölle und Verbrauchsteuern 2019, p. 10

  • Commentary on §§ 15, 16 KonzVgV, 28-30 SektVO and § 23 UVgO, in: Gabriel/Mertens/Prieß/Stein (eds.), Beck´scher Onlinekommentar Vergaberecht zum GWB, 9th ed. 2018

  • Grenzüberschreitendes Interesse bei Unterschwellenvergaben, NZBau 2018, 589 (with Roland M. Stein)

  • EuGH konkretisiert Kriterien für "Einrichtungen des öffentlichen Rechts", Anmerkung zu EuGH, Urteil vom 5. Oktober 2017, C-567/15, juris-PR VergR 12/2017 Anm. 1 (with Pascal Friton)


  • Update zu Sanktionen und Embargos in der Außenhandels-finanzierung, Online-Seminar „Außenhandelsfinanzierung – Update 2024“ des Verbands der Auslandsbanken in Deutschland e.V., 16 May 2024

  • Gun-Jumping – Die fusionskontrollrechtliche und investitionskontrollrechtliche Perspektive im Vergleich, Regionalveranstaltung der Studienvereinigung Kartellrecht, Berlin, 23 April 2024 (with Pia Hesse)

  • Controlled Engagement with Restricted Territories, Games Industry Law Summit, Limassol, 18 April 2024 (with Greg Pilarowski, Pillar Legal; George Ioannou, Chrysostomides; Kirill Laptev, Anischenko Laptev)

  • Die befristete Reduzierung der Stromsteuer für Unternehmen des Produzierenden Gewerbes, Forum Contracting annual conference, Berlin, 11 April 2024

  • Chair of the discussion on investment control and current practical challenges, BDI and CELIS German Chapter Investment Screening Conference, Berlin, 20 February 2024 (with Lena Hornkohl, Deputy Director, CELIS Institute Berlin)

  • Chair of the discussion “Looking For a Design of Europe's Screening”, CFIS 23 - Investment Screening and Economic Security, Prag, 12 October 2023 (with Lena Hornkohl, Deputy Director, CELIS Institute Berlin)

  • Form- und Fristvorschriften im Energiesteuerrecht – Das EuGH-Urteil vom 22. Dezember 2022, Inhalte und Reichweite, Espresso-Gespräch of Forum Contracting e.V., Online conference, 28 September 2023

  • Spitzenausgleich, AGVO und aktuelle EuGH-Fälle aus der Praxis, VEA Seminar zu Strom- und Energiesteuern 2023: Entlastungsmöglichkeiten und aktuelle Änderungen, Leipzig, 21 September 2023

  • Dealing with Trade Restrictions 2.0, Games Industry Law Summit, Vilnius, 7 September 2023 (with Greg Pilarowski, Pillar Legal and Ben Richards, Microsoft)

  • National Security Concerns Related to Foreign Investment in Critical Infrastructures, as Exemplified by the Transport Sector, CELIS NOW "The Age of Open Strategic Autonomy", Berlin, 12 May 2023

  • Auswirkungen des Critical Raw Material Act auf die Supply Chain, BDSV Fördermitgliedertag, Berlin, 4 May 2023

  • Recent Customs and Trade Policies of the EU and Germany, Ficient Global – The 10th Global Trade Compliance (China) Summit, 27 October 2022

  • Chair of the panel “Investment Screening and the Role of different measures to Mitigate National Security Concerns”, CELIS Forum on Investment Screening 2022 “The Emerging Law of Investment Control in Europe: Screening, Sanctions and Subsidies”, Uppsala, 3 June 2022

  • Aktuelle Gesetzgebung, Übersicht zum Energie-Contracting sowie praxisrelevante Fälle des BFH, Bundesverband der Energie-Abnehmer e.V., online seminar on “Strom- und Energiesteuern 2022: Entlastungsmöglichkeiten und aktuelle Änderungen”, 31 March 2022

  • Die Vorschläge der EU-Kommission zur Änderung der Energiesteuerrichtlinie im Rahmen des “Fit-for-55” Pakets für mehr Klimaschutz, Forum Contracting expert discussions on “Das Energie- und Stromsteuerrecht im Jahr 2022: Aktuelle Entwicklungen”, online event, 24 November 2021

  • EU FDI Screening Regulation Enters into Effect, video podcast 30minutes/CELIS Briefings #1, 18 October 2020 (with Roland Stein)

  • Practical seminar foreign trade financing from Verband der Auslandsbanken e.V., Frankfurt, 11 June 2019: “Ausschluss von Unternehmen von der Außenhandelsfinanzierung wegen Compliance-Verstößen”

  • Lecturer of the seminars “Praxiswissen Energiesteuerrecht” and “Praxiswissen Stromsteuer” at the Hamburger Zollakademie

  • Lecturer at the Hamburger Zollakademie “Zollfachkraft” (“Customs Specialist”) course on “Export Control Law” and “Customs Dept” (since autumn 2017)

  • Lecturer of the seminar “Verbrauchsteuerrecht in der Praxis – Schwerpunkt Ethanol” at the Hamburger Zollakademie

Very experienced, very good specialist knowledge.
The Legal 500 EMEA 2024